October 23, 2014

Nature Special- The hobbit at 10Revisiting the Hobbit
The remains of the tiny hominin Homo floresiensis (nicknamed the ‘hobbit’) still raise supersize questions 10 years after the publication in Nature of their discovery in a cave on the remote island of Flores in Indonesia. This collection of reporting, comment, and research—new and from Nature’s archives—examines the controversy surrounding the origins and validity of this species, including whether it belongs in our genus, Homo. (Nature)

When Humans Interbred With Neanderthals
The oldest DNA of a modern human ever to be sequenced shows that the Homo sapiens who interbred with the Neanderthals were very modern—not just anatomically but with modern behavior including painting, modern tools, music, and jewelry. Some previous estimates had placed the first interspecies liaison much earlier, before the emergence of these features. The new DNA sequence shows it actually happened in the middle of an age called the Initial Upper Palaeolithic, when there was an explosion of modern human culture. (Michael Slezak, New Scientist)

The Influence of Money on Emotion
In the latest research in this field, a team led by Yuwei Jiang have shown that exposing people to pictures of money, or to money-related words, reduces their emotional expressivity and makes them more sensitive to other people’s expressions of emotion. The researchers think the effect occurs because money primes a business mindset, and in business the cultural norm is to conceal emotion. (Christian Jarrett, BPS Research Digest)

More on Judging People by Their Faces
Christopher Olivola, an assistant professor at Carnegie Mellon University, makes the case against face-ism, in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences. In light of many recent articles touting people’s judgmental abilities, Olivola and Princeton University’s Friederike Funk and Alexander Todorov say that a careful look at the data really doesn’t support these claims. And “instead of applauding our ability to make inferences about social characteristics from facial appearances,” Olivola said, “the focus should be on the dangers.” (James Hamblin, The Atlantic)

EXHIBIT
Vodou: Sacred Powers of Haiti

The Field Museum’s new exhibit skips myths and misconceptions in favor of a rich cultural anthropology case study. Through centuries of hardship, poverty, and turmoil, the spiritual practice of Vodou—that’s the correct spelling—has helped Haitians find meaning and even express their creativity through visual arts and music. More than 300 authentic objects from Haiti will be on display, some accompanied by video interviews with practitioners. (Gemma Tarlach, Discover)


October 22, 2014

November-2014-coverSocial Robots
In recent years, a growing number of researchers have demonstrated that making robots more social—creating the perception that they are more sentient than a mere machine—can vastly improve how we work with them. Some activities, they argue, we simply perform better when we are in the presence of someone who supports us and shares our goals. In Japan, roboticists are taking the idea a step further. Isn’t life simply sweeter when we’re with another? Why be alone, they ask, when you don’t have to be? (Adam Piore, Popular Science)

Spiteful Behavior and Cognitive Skills in Preschoolers
Smart kids are apparently quicker to grasp the concept of competitiveness, and sense the advantages of impeding the success of others. “We find that higher cognitive skills are associated with more spiteful behavior in children,” conclude C. Katharina Spiess of the Free University of Berlin and Elisabeth Bügelmayer of the German Institute for Economic Research. “This relationship is even more pronounced among boys.” (Tom Jacobs, Pacific Standard)

More on Heroes and Altruists
It’s worth noting that the hero and the altruist are made of slightly different stuff. While both act admirably, only one has, by definition, a superhuman, preternatural aura. That distinction raises the question of whether what we value in heroism is a kind of transcending of what we take to be our frail or selfish wiring. Generosity might retain its gleam if it’s innate—but does heroism count as heroism if we’re predisposed to it? (Katy Waldman, Slate)

Does Being ‘Spiritual But Not Religious’ Really Mean Anything?
Adam Frank: Many of the “Spiritual But Not Religious” are trying honestly to understand what it means to be both spiritual and scientific. That’s why they represent a category that won’t be going away anytime soon. Nor should we hope they’ll go away. (13.7: Cosmos and Culture, NPR)

AUDIO
Cosmic Queries: Primate Evolution

Paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall of the American Museum of Natural History is back in the studio to help Neil deGrasse Tyson and Eugene Mirman answer fan questions about where primates came from, and where we’re going. (StarTalk)


October 21, 2014

© 2014 Microsoft CorporationMotivated by Love or Hate?
Asked why some of their fellow citizens supported bombing in Gaza, Israelis reported they were 35 percent more motivated by love for fellow Israelis than hate, while they thought just about the reverse for Palestinians’ motivations for firing rockets into Israel. Palestinians, meanwhile, ascribed more hate than love to Israelis, though they thought fellow Palestinians were about equally motivated by love and hate. An additional survey of 498 Israelis found that the more they perceived differences in the two parties’ motivations, the less likely they were to support negotiations, vote for a peace deal, or believe that Palestinians would support such a deal. (Nathan Collins, Pacific Standard)

Are Factual and Religious Belief The Same?
Tania Lombrozo: Consider the following two statements of “belief”:
Devon believes that humans evolved from earlier primates over 100,000 years ago.
Devon believes that humans were created less than 10,000 years ago.
These claims are clearly at odds. Since they can’t both be true, Devon holds contradictory beliefs. Right? Maybe not. A new paper by philosopher Neil Van Leeuwen offers a third possibility: That factual belief isn’t the same as religious belief. Even though we use the same word, our attitudes towards their respective propositions—that humans evolved thousands and thousands of years ago, that humans were created quite recently—could differ considerably. (13.7: Cosmos and Culture, NPR)

Seeking Stars, Finding Creationism
George Johnson: Congeries of stars have given way to congeries of galaxies, but astronomy—one of the grandest achievements of the human race—is still fending off charges of blasphemy. These days the opposition comes not from the Vatican, which operates its own observatory, but from a people with very different religious beliefs. (The New York Times)

BOOKS
The Language Myth: Why Language Is Not an Instinct

Alun Anderson: I came away excited. I found that words aren’t so much things that can be limited by a dictionary definition but are encyclopedic, pointing to sets of concepts. There is the intriguing notion that language will always be less rich than our ideas and there will always be things we cannot quite express. And there is the growing evidence that words are rooted in concepts built out of our bodily experience of living in the world. (New Scientist)

EXCERPT
The Upside of Your Dark Side: Why Being Your Whole Self—Not Just Your “Good” Self—Drives Success and Fulfillment

Todd Kashdan and Robert Biswas-Diener: The good news is that a whole range of negativity—of beneficial negativity, mind you—has nothing to do with being a jerk. Negative emotions can also help you focus on the situation at hand. When you are about to drill a hole in the wall, chances are that you pay close attention to the measurements involved as well as to the position of your hand. The anxiety associated with the downside risk encourages you to drill in exactly the right spot. (Science of Us, New York Magazine)


October 20, 2014

© 2014 Microsoft CorporationDoes Everything Happen for a Reason?
Konika Banerjee and Paul Bloom: Where does this belief come from? One theory is that it reflects religious teachings—we think that events have meaning because we believe in a God that plans for us, sends us messages, rewards the good and punishes the bad. But research from the Yale Mind and Development Lab, where we work, suggests that this can’t be the whole story. (The New York Times)

Voodoo Death
Scientists are just beginning to understand how cultural beliefs can lead to psychological stress, illness, and even death. American physiologist Walter Cannon was one of the first people to write about the potentially fatal consequences of these intense beliefs. In 1942, reports were streaming in from around the world about “voodoo” death: South American Tupinamba men, condemned by medicine men, died of fright. Hausa people in Niger withered away after being told they were bewitched. Aboriginal tribesmen in Australia, upon seeing an enemy pointing a hexed bone at them, went into convulsions and passed away. (Daphne Chen, Pacific Standard)

Mindful Commuters
As harried commuters filed aboard a Metro Red Line train at Cleveland Park—jockeying for seats, hoisting bulging tote bags—Denise Keyes gazed straight ahead, took deep breaths, and searched for inner peace. There were no lit candles, no incense, no chanting of “om.” But Keyes was meditating. Finding stillness on a subway during rush hour might sound impossible. But those who practice “mindful commuting” swear it brings tranquility to the daily misery of crowded trains, late buses, honking horns, and traffic jams. (Katherine Shaver, The Washington Post)

EXCERPT
Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End

Atul Gawande: This is a book about the modern experience of mortality—about what it’s like to be creatures who age and die, how medicine has changed the experience and how it hasn’t, where our ideas about how to deal with our finitude have got the reality wrong. As I pass a decade in surgical practice and become middle aged myself, I find that neither I nor my patients find our current state tolerable. But I have also found it unclear what the answers should be, or even whether any adequate ones are possible. I have the writer’s and scientist’s faith, however, that by pulling back the veil and peering in close, a person can make sense of what is most confusing or strange or disturbing. (Science of Us, New York Magazine)

VIDEO
How Do Astronomers Find Exoplanets?

NASA’s Kepler spacecraft has discovered nearly 3,000 possible exoplanets by tracking slight fluctuations in starlight to reveal their orbits. This is one of several methods employed in the hunt for the next habitable world. John Matson explains. (Scientific American)

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